Beloit College > Chemistry > Environmental, Analytical and Geochemistry

Chemical equilibria are fundamental in the understanding of biological and environmental processes and in chemical analysis. This course emphasizes quantitative and graphical interpretation of acid-base, solubility, distribution, complex ion, and redox equilibria in aqueous solution and soils. Laboratory work stresses application of gravimetric, volumetric, spectrophotometric, and potentiometric techniques. Pre-professional preparation requiring one term of quantitative analysis is satisfied by Chemistry 220. Three class periods and one laboratory period per week. Offered each spring.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 117 or facility with mole calculations.

Course Syllabus (pdf)

Lab Reports

Acid Rain
Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Emissions by Country
National Environment Ministries and Agencies and NGOs
Soil Maps

Calculation Review
Dimensional Analysis (pdf)
Sample problems and answers (pdf)

Math Skills
Review of Algebra (Stewart Calculus) copy
Algebraic Manipulation (Chemistry Department, Texas A&M)
Manipulation of Exponents (Chemistry Department, Texas A&M)
Quadratic Equation (Chemistry Department, Texas A&M)

Excel Templates
Climate Change Predictions (Living on Earth 2007 IPCC Report, especially 1:48-2:57)
Sample Problems: Statistics Problems & Answers (pdf)
Linear Least Squares Formulas (pdf)

Kplot software
Draw logarithmic concentration, distribution, and titration plots for acid/base, solubility, metal/ligand and redox equilibria, as well as cyclic voltammograms and Pourbaix diagrams.
Right click or control-click to download program: Mac | Windows 64 | Windows 32 | Linux | Raspberry Pi
For Windows, the Windows Universal Runtime is required which is installed by Windows Update. If you get a message about a missing dll, run Windows Update.
Since the Mac OSX applications are not signed, you will need to control-click the app icon and choose Open from the context menu the first time you run it.
This software is installed in SC 249, 401, and 450

Water Sampling Sites

Activity Corrections

Mineral Structures (especially dioctahedral sheets)

Acids and Bases
Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams
Sample Problems: Buffer Problems & Answers (pdf)


Chemical Contamination (pdf)

Metals and Ligands
Polydentate ligands (jsmol)
Sample Problems: Ligand Problems & Answers (pdf)
EDTA Titrations

Sample Problems: Spectroscopy Problems & Answers (pdf)

Iron Analysis
USDA Nutrient Database
Text lab manual (pdf)

pH Effects on Distribution and Redox Titrations

Cyclic Voltammetry
Variables in Cyclic Voltammetry
Linear and Cyclic Voltammetry (University of Cambridge)
Pine AfterMath Operating Manual
Epsilon Operating Manual

Last updated March 17, 2018 by George Lisensky

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